The Evolution of The Bible

Comment by Larry Sites

I have just acquired a set of internet files which I believe show without a doubt that the bible is an evolved work of man. Following is an edited version of those files. I have taken out most of the non-secular events and the dates of many popes and rulers to focus on the bible books, theology and their evolution over time. Fundis such as Josh McDowell make a big todo over the supposed great number of ancient manuscripts and their consistancy without noting that most versions of the 4 gospels of Jesus date to AFTER the defacto establishment of christianity as a state religion in the mid 300s and the puplication of "official" versions by Jerome around 400.

It is also interesting to note that many of the early church fathers quoted by the fundis to support their current interpertation of bible theology were declared heretics by later authorities.

I just finished reading _The Lost Years of Jesus Revealed_ and _Did Jesus Write This Book_, both by Charles Francis Potter. He proposes that the Books of Enoch and similar writings were "lost" on purpose because they document the evolutionary development of theology later grafted onto Jesus. In particular he points to Enoch as the source for the beatitudes and "but I say" and ethical teachings of Jesus. As evidence he cites the exclusion of the books of the Psalms of Solomon, Epistle of Barnabas, and Shepherd of Hermas. These are found in various of the oldest existing manuscripts and attested to by early church fathers.

Barnabas, for example, is included in the _Codex Sinaiticus_, Clement of Alexandria quotes it as scripture and Origen terms it a "Catholic Episle." Barnabas 16:5 quotes Enoch 89:55, 66, 67 and Barnabas chapter 4 reads "as Enoch says". Enoch was recogonized as scripture in the first century by the current new testament book of Jude, in the second century by Barnabas and Athenagoras, and in the third century by Clement of Alexandria, by Irenaeus, and Tertullian. After Hilary, Jerome and Augustine it was "lost".

On page 95 of _The Lost Years of J Revealed_, Potter shows that the phrase "I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God." was added to Acts 8:37 because it isn't in fourth century Codexes _Vaticanus_ and _Sinaiticus_ nor the fifth century Codexes _Alexandrinus_ and _Ephraemi_. It's still in the King James Version but has been removed from the Revised, American Standard Revised, and the new Revised Standard Version. In a strange twist of fate, he notes that the ethiopian eunuch falsely attributed as saying this, may in fact have been the source of the book of Enoch transported to europe where it escaped destruction and a copy was discovered late in the 19th century.

On the next several pages, Potter shows that the "he" refered to in 1 Peter 3:18-20 that "went and preached to the spirits in prison", the source of the credial phrase about descending into hell, is not Jesus but in fact originally refered to Enoch! He lists several Greek specialists that support this translation: Bowyer, Spitta, Cramer, Rendel Harris, M.R. James, Moffattt and Goodspeed. In Enoch chapters 6 to sixteen, Enoch not only preached to these spirits but the circumstances of their imprisonment are explained. This story became a point of contention between Augustine and Tertullian. Guess who became the heretic and who the saint and which believed what? Fundi scholars attribute this little change to a scribal error known as "haplography", or writing only one of two identical groups of letters occuring near together. Another accident like "losing" all the copies of Enoch, no doubt. BTW, these "spirits" were the fallen angels of Genesis 6:1-4, Isaiah 14:12 and 24:21-23. Paul was apparently aware of this and still afraid of them when he gives the reason why women should cover their heads in church in 1 Cor 11:10, "because of the angels.".

Further evidence of the evolution of biblical theology can be found in Luke 3:22 which in the "Gospel of the Ebionites", several ancient manuscripts, quotations by Justin, Clement, Origen, and even Augustine describes the descent of the Holy Spirit as Jesus baptism thus, "Thou are my Son, today I have begotten thee." This clear text is the basis for Adoptianism, or the belief that Jesus was only a human till god endowed ( or adopted) him with divine nature. This belief can be traced back through Arius, Lucian, Paul of Samosata, to Theodotus of Byzantium and Artemon in Rome about 185 and before that to the Ebionites of the first and second centuries, the survivors of Qumran and Jerusalem in 70. The Ebionites are also the ones that first call Paul a liar! What does the present day bible say at Luke 3:22? The "today" has been removed to match the eternal divinity dogma and all the Adoptionists are declaired heretics even by Augustine who knew what the bible originally said!


Edited version of files ce1, ce2, ce3 available from internet [email protected]

25?: Assumption (Testament) of Moses: original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)

28-36?: Jesus "betrayed" by his Apostle Judas son of Simon of Iscariot, denied 3 times by his primary Apostle (Simon) Peter the "Rock", crucified by Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate (26-36) for the Roman crime of INRI (Latin: IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM: Iudaean King Nazareth Jesus) [Mk15:26

(70?),Mt27:37

(80?), Lk23:38

(90?), Jn19:19

(100?), Gospel of Peter 4:2

(65?), Josephus Jewish Antiquities 18.3.3

(94), Tacitus Annals 15.44

(117?, 64)] on Friday 14 Nisan [John] (or Friday 15 Nisan [Synoptic]?) {And at 3 o'clock, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani," <Aramaic> which translates to "My God, my God, why did you desert <sacrifice?> me?} -Mk15:34 (Gaus); possible Friday 14 Nisan crucifixion dates: 7Apr30, 3Apr33, 30Mar36

40?: 4 Maccabees: written in Greek in Alexandria (Septuagint)

50?: Peshitta: translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)

50?: Ascension of Isaiah: original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)

50?: early Gnostics?: Simon Magus of Samaria, Simonianism [Ac8:9-24,Petrine Acts,EH2.13,...]; Nicolaus of Antioch, Nicolaitans? [Ac6:5,Rv2:6,15, EH3.29.1-3,...]; Menander disciple of Simon Magus; Basilides of Alexandria (d.160?) and Satorninus of Antioch (d.120?) disciples of Menander; ...

60?: 2nd Thess.: probably itself a forgery, warns of Christian Epistle forgery

62: {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} [JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]

65-150: Gospel redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post-Paul, center of Christianity shifts to Antioch and Rome - "New Babylon" of 1Pt5:13

65?: Q: (German: Quelle: Source), hypothetical Greek text used in Matt & Luke

65-150: Didache: Instructions of the Apostles, pub. 1883 (Apostolic Fathers)

65-150: Gospel of Peter, Dialogue of the Savior (Complete Gospels)

65-150: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914, {When the scholars a[nd Pharise]es and priests observe[ed hi]m, they were indignant [because he re- clined <at table> in the com]pany of sin[ners]. But Jesus overheard [them and said,] Those who are we[ll don't need a doctor.]} -5(SV) || Mk2:15-17; Mt9:10-13;Lk5:29-32 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, 1992, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]

65-150: Gospel of Thomas: based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus Ox. 1,654-5; {Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the <Father's> imperial rule is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the <Father's> imperial rule is within you and it is outside you. When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."} -Th3(SV), cf. Mk13:21-23;

Mt24:23-28;Lk17:20-25;Jb28:12-14,20-22(LXX);Bar3:29-32,35-37;Dt30:11-14(LXX ) ;Sir1:1-3 {His disciples said to him, "When will the rest for the dead take place, and when will the new world come?" He said to them, "What you are looking forward to has come, but you don't know it."} -Th51(SV), cf. Mt11:28 -29;DSav65-68;Sir51:26-27,6:23-31;Lk17:20-21;Mk9:12-13;Mt17:11;2Tm2:17-18 {His disciples said to him, "When will the <Father's> imperial rule come?" "It will not come by watching for it. It will not be said, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Rather, the Father's imperial rule is spread out upon the earth, and people don't see it."} -Th113(SV) || Lk17:20-21; cf. Mary4:4-5; Mk13:21;Mt24:23;Lk17:23 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]

65-175: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908, {In response the savior said to him: "I feel sorry for the blind who can't see. You bathe in these stagnant waters where dogs & pigs wallow day & night.} -2:7(SV) cf. Mt7:6; Jn9:40-41; 2Pt2:22; Rv22:15 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]

65-175: Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175), {Turning to the rulers of the people, <Jesus> made this statement: "Pore over the <sacred> writings. You imagine that in them there is life to be had. They do indeed give evidence on my behalf."} -EgerG1:2(SV) || Jn5:39 (Comp. Gospels)

65-250: Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887, {(He said, after) eating according to custom, "Al[l of you on this] night will fall away, [according to] scripture: 'I will strike the [shepherd and the] sheep will be scattered.'" [When] Peter said, "Even if all, [yet not I," (Jesus said) "Before] the cock crows twice [today three times] you will deny me."} cf. Mk14:26-31;Mt26:30-35;Lk22:31-34 [Ref: Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992]

65-350: "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]

66-73: Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)

67: Peter: 1st Pope?, bishop of Antioch & Rome?, martyred (crucified?) inRome

67-78: Linus: becomes second (or first?) Pope, 2Tm4:21?

68: Nero commits suicide & resurrects as "Nero redivivus" (Revelation's 666?)

68: Qumran (Essenes?) (Dead Sea Scrolls - 1949) community destroyed by Rome

69: "Nero redivivus" martyred in Galatia [ABD,Tac.Hist.2.8]

70: Aug: Titus, Vespasian's eldest son, conquers Jerusalem, destroys Temple

70?: Gospel of Mark: Peter's interpreter? [1Pt5:13], written in Rome?, ends unexpectedly at Mk16:8, original ending apparently lost, endings added ~400

70?: "Signs Gospel": hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is Messiah; [Complete Gospels]: Opening: Jn1:6-7,19-49; in Galilee: Jn 2:1-12a,4:46b-54,21:1-14,6:1-14,15b-25; in Jerusalem: Jn11:1-45,9:1-8,5:2-9; Culmination: Jn11:47-53,2:14-19,12:37-40; Passion Prelude: Jn12:1-8,12-15; Passion: Jn18:1-19:42; Resurrection: Jn20:1-22; Closing: Jn20:30-31

80: Terentius Maximus of Parthia claims to be "Nero redivivus" [ABD]

80?: Gospel of Matthew: most popular in early church, based on Mark and Q

80?: "Council of Jamnia" said to have canonized Jewish Scripture [discredited]

81-96: Domitian: Roman emperor, youngest son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68), proclaimed himself "Lord and God", stabbed to death by wife ...

88: 2nd "Nero redivivus" of Parthia: "Even now his subjects wish he were alive, and most men believe that he is." [ABD,Dio Chrysostom Or.21.10]

90?: Gospel of Luke: based on Mark & Q, also Acts - same author, style of LXX

90?: Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns [AA]

91-101: Pope Clement I: Phil4:3?, wrote to Corinth in 95: "1 Clement" (AF)

100?: Gospel of John: only eyewitness? the disciple Jesus loved? Gnostic?

100?: Odes of Solomon: Gnostic?, Greek or Syriac?, ref by John? (Apocrypha)

100?: Epistle of Barnabas: Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)

100?: 2 Clement: an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)

100?: 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras): Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)

100?: Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)

100?: Paralipomena of Jeremiah: (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)

100?: Masoretes at Tiberias compile Masora (MT), standard Jewish Scriptures

100?: Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)

100?: Flavius Josephus: b.37?, Jewish general, turncoat, historian, hellenist: 71: JW=Jewish War; 90?: AA=Against Apion; 94: JA=Jewish Antiquities; 10 Loeb

100-150: Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)

110?: Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians: written by Polycarp (160) (AF)

110?: "Letters of Ignatius": bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)

125?: Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38

125?: Shepherd of Hermas: written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)

130-200: "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr (165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apolli- naris of Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers

130?: "Gospel of Basilides": a 24 book commentary?, Gnostic?, lost

130?: Papias: bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)

140: Letters of Marcion: Gnostic?, produces canon without OT and using only a heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type

140?: Apocalypse of Peter: written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]

150?: Justin Martyr's "Dialogue with Trypho" fictional Christian-Jewish debate

150?: Gospel of the Egyptians: Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)

150?: "Teachings of Silvanus": Gnostic; v99.13: Christ has a single hypostasis [hidden spiritual reality]; v102.3: Christ is incomprehensible with respect to his hypostasis (Nag Hammadi)

150?: "Western Reviser" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 & Codex Bezae (D) {Who it was that was responsible for the additional information concerning the apostolic age or where it came from is entirely unknown. According to F. G. Kenyon, "What one would like to suppose (but for which there is no exter- nal evidence), is that one of St. Paul's companions transcribed Luke's book [Acts] (perhaps after the author's death), and inserted details of which he had personal knowledge, & made other alterations in accordance with his own taste in a matter on which he was entitled to regard himself as having auth- ority equal to that of Luke."} [Textual Comm., Metzger, p272, 3-438-06010-8]

150?: Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12

160?: Polycarp: bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)

160?: Martyrdom of Polycarp: in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)

165: Letters of Justin Martyr: cites "Acts of Pilate", debates Trypho the Jew

166-174: Pope Soter: moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday

170: Letters of Irenaeus: bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type

170: Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor

170: Letters of Dionysius: bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels

170: Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type Gospels into 1: {... [the mother of the sons of Zebed]ee (Mt27:56) & Salome (Mk15:40) & the wives [of those who] had followed him from [Galile]e to see the crucified (Lk23:49b-c). And [the da]y was Preparation; the Sabbath was daw[ning] (Lk23:54). & when it was evening (Mt27:57), on the Prep[aration], that is, the day before the Sabbath (Mk25:42), [there came] up a man (Mt27: 57), be[ing] a member of the council (Lk23:50), from Arimathea (Mt27:57), a c[i]ty of [Jude]a (Lk23:51), by name Jo[seph] (Mt27:57), good & ri[ghteous] (Lk23:50), being a disciple of Jesus, but se[cret]ly, for fear of the [Jew]s (Jn19:38). & he (Mt27:57) was looking for [the] k[ingdom] of God (Lk23:51b). This man [had] not [con]sented to [their] p[urpose] (Lk23:51a) ...} {#0212} [Ref: Text of the NT, Bruce Metzger, 3rd ed., ISBN:0-19-507297-9, pg. 90]

170?: Symmachus: an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation

175?: Acts of Paul: (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]

175?: Valentinus: b.100?, founder of Gnostic Valentinian School of Rome, wrote: "On the 3 Natures"; quoted in Pseudo-Anthimus: God is 3 hypostases [hidden spiritual realities] & 3 prosopa [persons]: Father, Son, Holy Spirit

178: Celsus writes "True Discourse", a pro-Pagan/anti-Christian polemic, lost

185-350: Canon Muratorian: first extant for NT? written in Rome by Hippolytus? ex: Hebrews, James, 1-2Pt, 3Jn; in: Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter

189-198: Pope Victor I: first Latin Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman" 190: Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter 190?: Heracleon: disciple of Gnostic Valentinus, first commentary on Gospel of John (cited by Origen & Clement), wrote: "Tripartite Tractate" (Nag Hammadi)

200: Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (65) being used in Cilicia

200?: Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8

200?: Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33

200?: Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels: Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type

200?: Latin Bible translations: begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant

200?: Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria

200?: Theodotion: Greek convert to Judaism, makes revision of LXX (Septuagint)

200?: Hypostasis [hidden spiritual reality] of the Archons (Nag Hammadi)

200?: Valentinian Exposition: 24.23: Son is hypostasis of Father (Nag Hammadi) 200?: Corpus Hermeticum: Alexandrian quasi-Neo-Platonism

[ISBN:0-87773-338-4]

200?: Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types: Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-20:20,22-23,25-21:9 200?: Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus;

Lk3:18-22,33-4:2,34-5:10,37-6:4,10-7:32,35-39,41-43,46-9:2,4-17:15,19-18:18 ; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8

200?: Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-14 ;8:15-25,27-35,37-9:32;10:1-11:22,24-33,35-15:9,11-16:27; Hb1:1-9:16,18-10:20,22-30,32-13:25;1Cr1:1-9:2,4-14:14,16-15:15,17-16:22; 2Cr1:1-11:10,12-21,23-13:13; Ep1:1-2:7,10-5:6,8-6:6,8,20-24; Gl1:1-8,10-2:9,12-21;3:2-29;4:2-18,20-5:17,20-6:8,10-18; Ph1:1,5-15,17-28,30-2:12,14-27,29-3:8,10-21;4:2-12,14-23; Cl 1:1-2,5-13,16-24,27-2:19,23-3:11,13-24;4:3-12,16-18; 1Th1:1,9-2:3;5:5-9,23-28

217-235: antipope Saint Hippolytus: Bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect

217: Judah Ha-Nasi: b.135?, "Rabbi", codified Mishnah (220?)

220?: Mishnah: Torah teachings, Halakhah (Oral Law), Hillel/Akiva/Meir/Judah

220?: Bishop Clement of Alexandria: b.150?, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)

222-235: Alexander Severus: emperor of Rome, halted Christian persecutions

223?: Tertullian: b.160?, wrote "de Spectaculis", v30.6: cites rumor Jesus son of prostitute, coined "New Testament", advocated exclusion of women from priesthood, wrote: Father, Son, Holy Spirit are 1 substantia yet 3 persona, cites "Western" Gospel text-type; wrote in Latin; (Loeb Classics)

225?: Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian): Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-25,36-50;7:3-15 ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26-41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-46,50- 12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,29-14:10,17-33; Jn10:7-25,30-11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32-41,52-8:1,14-25,34-9:6,16-27, 35-10:2,10-23,31-41;11:2-14,24-12:5,13-22;13:6 -16,25-36,46-14:3,15-23;15:2-7,19-27,38-16:4,15-21,32-40;17:9-17

225?: Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus

230-250: Christian council of Rome: Bishop Demetrius of Alex. condemns Origen

236-238: Maximinus: emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deport- ing Pope Pontian and antipope St. Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die

240-250: Christian council of Carthage

248: Rome celebrates 1,000th anniversary (753bce)

248: Origen: (253) writes "Contra Celsum", against Celsus' lost work of

178, cites a rumor recorded by Celsus: "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223]

249-251: Decius: emperor of Rome, large-scale persecution of Christians

250: Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers

250?: Mandeans: followers of John the Baptist, begin compilation of "Ginza"

250?: Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;

250?: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105; #7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1-12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end,Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)

250-400: Tosefta: supplements to the Mishnah (220?)

251-258: antipope Novatian: decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism

251-253: Pope Cornelius: excommunicated antipope Novatian and Novatianists

253-260: Valerian: emperor of Rome, notorious persecutor of Christians

253: Letters of Origen: b.185?, used Greek Gnostic term "homoousios" [Jesus & God of "same substance"], wrote: God is 1 genus of ousia [substance] yet 3 distinct species of hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?] of Father, Son, Holy Spirit; compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of Septuagint side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew transliterated into Greek, Aquila's Greek translation, Symmachus' Greek translation, Origen's revised Septuagint, Theodotion's revised Septuagint; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima translations; Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Origen castrated himself for Christ & Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3]

254-257: Pope Stephen I: major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates

257-258: Pope Sixtus II: martyred in Valerian's Massacre of 258

258: Letters of Bishop Cyprian of Carthage: cites "Western" NT text-type, claims Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him, martyred

258: Valerian's Massacre: executes Pope Sixtus II, antipope Novatian, Bishop Cyprian of Carthage, and all other Christian Bishops, Priests, and Deacons

260-268: Gallienus: emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman church

260-268: Pope Dionysius: rebuilds Roman church after Valerian's massacre

264-268: Synod of Antioch: condemned Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch and founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism); also condemned use of Gnostic term "homoousios" (Origen 253) 264?: Letters of Bishop Dionysius of Alexandria: b.190?

270-275: Aurelian: emperor of Rome, restitutor orbis, vigorously promoted Sol Invictus sun-god (continued by Probus & early Constantine) & festival dies natalis Solis Invicti (birthday of Invincible Sun) on Dec 25, made Sol the official religion & principle patron of the empire, assassinated; {Besides, the Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Christians in a Christian sense, as demonstrated in the Christ as Apollo-Helios in a musoleum (c.250) discovered beneath St. Peter's in the Vatican.} [New Catholic Encyclopedia, v.4, p.227]

270: Plotinus: b.205, Egyptian philosopher, founds Neo-Platonism, Doctrine of 3 Primal Hypostases: One [To Hen], Mind [Nous], Soul [Psyche]; yet the One transcends hypostasis, is prior to hypostasis & beyong being; Loeb:7v(Greek)

274: Dec 25: Roman Temple of Sol Invictus: sun-god, dedicated by Aurelian

275-283: Pope Eutychian: decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass

275?: Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2

276: Mani: b.216, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia

282-283: Marcus Aurelius Carus: emperor of Rome

285-305: Diocletian: emperor of Rome, notorious persecutor of Christians

294: Codex Gregorianus: a compilation of Roman law

296-304: Pope Marcellinus: apostate, offered pagan sacrifice for Diocletian

300?: Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria

300?: Hesychius of Alex.: martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]

300?: Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927

300?: other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-2:1, 6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-40;16:14-30;20:11-17,19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1 P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9 P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32 P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9 P28:Jn6:8-12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28 ;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29 P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-3:1;11:26-27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25 #0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21 #0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13 #0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-42;Lk23:49-51,54;Jn19:38

303-312: Edict of Emperor Diocletian against Christians: Diocletian's Massacre

304: Letters of Bishop Victor of Pettau

304: Porphyry: b.233, Neoplatonic philosopher, wrote: "Adversus Christianos"

306-337: Emperor Constantine the Great: converts to Christianity on deathbed

306-308: Pope Marcellus I: tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace

306: Synod of Elvira: prohibits eating/marriage/sex between Christians & Jews

310: Pope Eusebius: deported to Sicily with antipope Heraclius by Maxentius

311-314: Pope Miltiades: Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal residence

312: Lucian: founded Exegetical School of Antioch, revised LXX, martyred

312: Oct 28: Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Empire

313: Edict of Milan: Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity

313: Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates

314: Council of Arles: called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism

317: Letters of Lactantius: early Christian church father

321: Constantine decrees SUNday (dies Solis) as Roman day of rest [CJ3.12.2]

325: Council of Nicaea: called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called "1st great Christian council" by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend, adopted Origen's (253) use of "homoousios" (Jesus & God of same substance) which gave rise to "Homoiousians" led by Meletius of Antioch, Cyril of Jerusalem & Basil of Ancyra: "homoiousios" = Jesus & God of *like* substance

325?: Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11

334-365: Codex Hermogenianus: a compilation of Roman law

335: Council of Tyre: condemns Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria (362,367)

336: Arius: Greek theologian, b.256?, Arianism: Jesus is a created being

337-352: Constantius II: emperor of East, Arianism official state religion

337-340: Constantinus II: emperor of West, defeated and killed by Constans

338: Judaism standardizes 19-year cycle lunisolar calendar

339?: Eusebius: Bishop of Caesarea, theologian, historian, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one translated them as he could."} [EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126f] Eusebius' NT Canon [EH3.25]: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John

350: Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers

350?: Codex Sinaiticus (S or <ALEPH>): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2-3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas), missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type

350?: Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type

350?: Papyrus Antinoopolis: of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950

350?: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek

Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-104:13,106:1-107:3

350?: Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)

350?: Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)

350?: Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John

350?: Ulfilas: apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic

350?: Nag Hammadi Codices: Coptic Gnostic Library, 12 papyrus codices, 1945

350?: Avesta: Zoroastrian texts back to 1,000 bce compiled in Persia

352-360: Constantius II: emperor of united Roman Empire

355-365: antipope Felix II: Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II

360-363: Emperor Julian the Apostate attempts to revive Paganism; Loeb:3v (Gk)

360: Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)

362: Synod of Alexandria: led by Athanasius (367) decreed God is 3 hypostases

363: Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers

363: Council of Laodicea: names 26NT books (excludes Revelations)

366-384: Pope Damasus I: hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians)

366-367: antipope Ursinus: leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius

364: Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath

367: Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria: d.373, first cite of modern 27NT canon

367: Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers

370: Bishop Epiphanius of Salamis, Cyprus: cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon

370: Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)

373: Letters of Ephraem Syrus: cites "Western" Acts text-type

378: Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers

380: Feb 27: Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius

381: Council of Theodosius at Const.: 2d ecumenical, Jesus had true human soul

382: Pope Damasus I has Jerome begin revision & unification of Latin Bibles

384: Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost

384-399-401: Pope Siricius (criticized Jerome) - Pope Anastasius I

386?: Letters of Bishop Cyril of Jerusalem: cites "Caesarean" NT text-type

390: Apollinaris of Laodicea: b.310, Jesus had human body but divine spirit

390: Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers

391: Theodosius' Edicts against Paganism

393,397: Augustine's (430) Councils: cites exactly 27NT books

395: Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games

395?: Ammianus Marcellinus: b.330?, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"

396: Alaric: king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens

397: Ambrose: b.339?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...

400-600: era of "aggressive forgeries" in Christian texts [Grant,J.T.S.,1960]

400?: Vulgate Bible: (Hebrew OT ->Latin, Greek NT ->Latin), by Jerome? (419?), originals lost, Vulgate Latin Text becomes standard Western Christian Bible

400?: Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type

400?: Peshitta Bible: Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes: 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible

400?: Palestinian Talmud (Mishnah (Oral Law) + Gemara (Mishnah commentary))

400?: Pericope of the Adulteress: John 7:53-8:11, added to Bible [Jerome,(D)]

400?: Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8: {But they reported briefly to Peter & those with him all that they had been told. & after this Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal slavation.} [Text.Com., Metzger, p.123]

400?: Jerome cites "expanded" ending of Mark found in (W) after Mk16:14: {And they excused themselves, saying, "This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth & power of God to pervail over the unclean things of the spirits [or does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth & power of God]. Therefore reveal thy right- eousness now" - thus they spoke to Christ. And Christ replied to them, "The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they many inherit the spirtual & incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven."} [A Textual Commentary on the Greek NT, Bruce Metzger, p.124]

401-417: Pope Innocent I: decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity

403: Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers

410: Aug 23: Alaric: king of the Visigoths, sacks Rome

414: Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers

415: March: Saint Cyril Archbishop of Alexandria d.444: had monks murder woman philosopher & mathematician Hypatia by scraping off skin with oyster shells; expelled Jews; persecuted Novatianists; [Gibbon's Decline & Fall, v2, p816]; coined "hypostatic union": Christ is 2 phuseis [natures] yet 1 hypostasis

419?: Jerome: S.E. Hieronymus, b.347?, Christian Latin scholar; (Loeb)

423: Bishop Theodoret of Cyrrhus: notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use

430: Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers

430: Augustine of Hippo: b.354, Gnostic convert to Christianity, origin of "Original Sin", wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb: 10 v.(Latin)

431: Letters of Nonnus of Panopolis, John Cassian; Christian church fathers

431: Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorians) and West (Jacobites)

431: Council of Ephesus: 3rd ecumenical, called by Emperor Theodosius II, decreed Mary to be "Mother of God" (Theotokos) [cf. Artemis of Ephesus]

438: Codex Theodosianus: a compilation of Roman law

449: Pope Leo I the Great issues "Tome": Christ is 2 phuseis yet 1 hypostasis

450?: Mark's Resurrection of Jesus: Mark 16:9-20, added to Bible [(A),(D),(W)]

450?: Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT + 1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4, 2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type 450?: Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W): Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"

450?: Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps

450?: Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps

450?: Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua

450?: Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua

450?: Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg

450?: Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type

450?: Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type

450?: Syr(pal): Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type

450?: std. Aramaic Targums: T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets

451: Letters of Arnobius the Younger, Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; church fathers

451: Council of Chalcedon: 4th ecumenical, called by Emperor Marcian, decreed: God is 1 ousia [substance] yet 3 hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?] & Pope Leo I's Tome of 449: Christ is 2 phuseis [2-natures: 1 fully human & 1 fully divine] yet 1 hypostasis; compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms

451: Archbishop Nestorius of Constantinople: Mary was *not* "Mother of God" & Christ is 2 phuseis [natures] and 2 hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?]

452: Eutyches of Constantinople: Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human

463: Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine: early Christian church father

466: Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers

476: Sep 4: official end of Western Roman Empire, last emp. Romulus Augustulus

484-519: Acacian schism over "Henoticon" divides Western and Eastern churches

484: Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus: early Christian church father

489: Zeno destroys Nestorian(451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St.Simeon

498: Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia

498: Clovis: king of the Franks (France) baptized into Roman Catholicism

500: incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican

500?: Codex Sangallensis vg<SIGMA>: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels

500?: Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels

500?: Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis

525: Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus birth @ 23Dec1ce

525: Boethius: b.475?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy", wrote in Latin; (Loeb Classics)

527: Letters of Fulgentius: early Christian church father

529: Justinian closes 900yr Athen's Academy of Philosophy, declared Paganistic

529-535: "Corpus juris civilis": a compilation of Roman law by Tribonian

530: antipope Dioscorus: elected but P. Felix IV designated P. Boniface II

535: Synod of Clermont: excludes Jews from public office

537-555: Pope Vigilius: involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550 ... [Ref: Oxford Dictionary of Popes, 1986, ISBN:0-19-213964-9]

538: 3d Synod of Orleans requires Jews to remain indoors during "Passion Week"

541-546: Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans

543: Justinian condemns Origen (253), disastrous earthquakes hit the world

544: Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)

547: Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti-"2-natures"

548: Letters of Apringius Pacensis: early Christian church father

550-1453: Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek

550: Byzantine Greek Text: standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation

550: St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon

550?: Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250ce lists 27NT+Barnabas+Hermas+Acts_of_Paul+Apocalypse_of_Peter; "Western" type

550?: Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels

550?: Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms

552: Justinian sends Christian missionaries to China & Ceylon to get silkworm

555: 2nd Council of Constantinople: 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian

556-561: Pope Pelagius I: selected by Justianian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)

567: Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers

589: 3rd Council of Toledo: Reccared king of the Visigoths of Spain renounces Arianism (336) and converts to Roman Catholicism

594: end of plague which began in 542 and *halved* the population of Europe!

600: Pope Gregory "strives" to convert the Jews to Christianity

600?: Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels

600?: Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type

609: Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda

622-680: Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th ecumenical in Const. (680)