AB> Along with Astronomer Thomas Gold and Mathematician
AB> Herman Biondi, He formed the Steady State theory.
Which was never widely accepted and has been disproven by
AB> he almost destroyed the big bang theory by mathematically
AB> demonstrating how the heavier elements could come into
AB> existence naturally via the collapse of very large
AB> stars and the resulting Supernovas they would produce,
AB> thus showing that a big bang was not necessary to explain
AB> the existence of the heavier elements.
ROFL! Gamow, Alpher and Herman predicted that about three-fourths of cosmic matter is hydrogen and one-fourth helium based on big-bang theory. Hoyle predicted that elemental abundances would vary across space as elements were formed only in local celestial furnaces. In 1949-50 Enrico Fermi and Anthony Turkevich showed that heavier elements must come from stars and lighter elements from the big bang. It took Hoyle until the mid-1960's to admit that he couldn't account for the production of hydrogen and helium using steady state theory.
AB> Hoyle's steady state model was dominant until 1965
Aren't you worried about going to hell for lying?
To correct your copious lies as briefly as possible:
The steady state theory was proposed in 1948, but never became "dominant" -- it was always a fringe theory, popular with the general populace but not scientists due to such metaphysical bunkum as "creation fields." Those scientists who did embrace it did so more on philisophical grounds than scientific grounds (and all but Hoyle have admitted their grave mistake in doing so).
Radio telescopy experiments in the '50s and '60s, led by Martin Ryle, one of Hoyle's colleagues, disproved the steady state theory as the number of galaxies didn't match Hoyle's predictions.
In 1965 Penzais and Wilson discovered the microwave background radiation, showing the early universe was hotter than the present universe. This was the final, lethal blow to steady state theory.
The early universe can be observed (remember, when you look at things far away you look backward in time) to be denser than the universe today.
In 1970, Penrose and Hawking proved mathematically that a universe such as we observe _must_ have begun at a big bang.
Although Sir Fred conceded that the steady state theory would have to be discarded in 1965, he recently _has returned to it_ and holds to it to this day.
Interestingly, it was Hoyle who coined the term "big bang" on a radio talk show in 1950, intending it to be a derogatory description of Gamow's "repugnant theory." Throughout the 50's and 60's, Sir Fred conducted himself in a most unscientific manner, earning him much disrespect from his colleagues and the general populace. It clings to him to this day.
Gamow's wife penned the following poem in the early 1960's, which Gamow published in one of his books:
"Your years of toil,"
Said Ryle to Hoyle,
"Are wasted years, believe me.
The steady state
Is out of date.
Unless my eyes decieve me,
Has dashed your hope;
Your tenets are refuted.
Let me be terse::
Grows daily more diluted!"
Said Hoyle, "You quote
Lemaitre, I note,
And Gamow. Well, forget them!
That errant gang
And their Big Bang --
Why aid them, and abet them?
You see, my friend,
It has no end
And there was no beginning,
As Bondi, Gold,
And I will hold
Until our hair is thinning!"
Wrinkles in Time, George Smoot and Keay Davidson, Morrow Press, 1993