|"Not one single fossil ancestor has been found for each of the complex invertebrates (clams, snails, sponges, jellyfish, trilobites, brachiopods, etc.), nor are there any transitional forms connecting these creatures to a common ancestor. Supposedly, one of these invertebrates evolved into fishes (vertebrates). There are billions times billions of fossil invertebrates and untold billions of fossil fishes, but not one fossil intermediate form between invertebrates and fishes. Every major kind of fish appears fully formed without a trace of an ancestor, and there are no transitional forms connecting these various kinds of fishes. Obviously, evolution has not taken place on the earth." --- Reverend Duane Gish|
|It is ABSURD to expect the fossil record to contain a sample fossil of every species that has ever lived: fossilization does not work that way. Less than one per cent of hard-bodied organisms fossilize; less than one per cent of those fossils have been found by paleontologists and studied. Does Rev Gish know where the bones of his great gandparents are? No? Does that mean Gish never had great grandparents? You can see the absurdity of Rev Gish's first claim.|
"Fossilization" is really a "bag" term
for preservation in the rock record. To be more precise,
one should refer to the actual processes (plural) of
preservation. These include: mummification (preservation
in arid/cold [or both] climates), usually reserved for
fairly recent sort of remains (mammoths in permafrost,
cave bears from the Pleistocene, and dodo and great auk
remains from the Pliocene). Other more typical
preservational modes are carbonization (usually for
florules, i.e. plant remains), but certain critters
croaking in water and falling to the bottom of a lake or
restricted ocean in an euxinic or anoxic environment are
not bothered by scavengers and other reducers, and are
eventually "distilled" into a carbon film. Good
examples are some of the piscine remains in the Eocene
Green River Shales, ichthyosaurs from the Jurassic of
Germany and Cretaceous fish from Brazil.
Other methods are replacement and permineralization; where there is a molecule for molecule exchange of organic remains (carbon base) for inorganic (silica, hematite, opal, magnetite, pyrite, etc.). This yields exquisite detail as it is a VERY slow process (106 years). Such examples include the "Petrified Forest" of the 4 corners area fame (coniferous trees replaced by precious opal), numerous examples of pyritized brachiopods from the Carboniferous Cincinnati Shales (Platystrophia ponderosa is a largish brachiopod and oftimes is found completely pyritized... makes nifty geological door prizes.)
Other modes of preservation include imbedment in various agents such as tar (Pleistocene Rancho de La Brea as a classic example), amber (Baltic insects from the Miocene) and body casts and molds by interment in ash falls.
As for the supposed big boat that "fossilized" in a mere 4,000 years on the slopes of a tallish mountain, just where the flying fornication did all the water come from (and go to) that allowed this rapid mode of fossilization on the side of a volcano? All processes of preservation (excepting the latter inclusion cases) require copious amounts of liquid H2O for the vehicle to carry dissolved minerals for replacement.
Or is it all just a great, huge load of bovine biogenic colluvium?--- Dr. Marty Leipzig
Transition from primitive jawless fish to sharks, skates,